Tribes in northern Ecuador established the Kingdom of Quito in around 1000, and it eventually became part of the Inca Empire. After the arrival of Pizarro in 1532, the Spanish colony thrived for hundreds of years by exploiting the local population. Ecuador joined Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama in a union called Greater Colombia that lasted from 1819 to 1830. Ecuador became an independent country in 1830. War with Peru has broken out periodically over the years, in 1941, 1981, and 1995. Finally, in May 1999, Ecuador and Peru signed a treaty ending the longtime border dispute. Spanish is Ecuador’s official language, while Quichua and Shuar are the two major indigenous languages. Quichua is the language of the Inca, and it is still used daily throughout the Sierra regions.