History, Language & Culture アメリカ合衆国

歴史、言語と文化 アメリカ合衆国

The beginning of the history of the United States has been debated among historians. The old textbooks started in 1492 and highlighted a European background or started in 1600 and emphasize the American frontier.In the past decade, American schools and universities have often shifted back in time to include more colonial times and So much more in indigenous history.


Indigenous peoples who lived in what is now the United States for thousands of years. And developed a complex culture before European colonists began to arrive, mainly from England, after 1600. Spain had early settlements in Florida and the southwest, and France along the Mississippi River. And the coast of the Gulf of Mexico In the 1770s, thirteen British colonies had two and a half million people along the Atlantic coast, east of the Appalachian Mountains. While rejecting the American argument that Taxes are required to go to the council. Tax resistance, especially The Boston Tea Party in 1774 led to a sanction by the council that was designed in the self-imposed end of the Massachusetts government. The 13 colonies gathered in Congress that led to the armed conflict in April 1775.On July 4, 1776, Congress voted to recognize the Declaration of Independence. Written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring that all human beings are created equal. And establishing a new country That is the United States. With huge military force and financial support from France And military leadership by General George Washington, American Patriot Wins the Revolutionary War "The 1783 Peace Treaty gave the country a new country, most of the territory east of the Mississippi (except Florida). National government Established according to the Articles of Confederation, it proved ineffective to provide stability to the new country, since it had no taxation powers and no top management. Meeting held in Philadelphia in 1787 to revise the regulations of The Confederation resulted in the rewriting of a new constitution, which was adopted in 1789. In 1791 the Bill of Rights was added to guarantee the right. Various at fair margins for the revolution. With George Washington as the nation's first president and As his political and financial advisor Alexander Hamilton, a strong national government was created. When Thomas Jefferson became president He bought Louisiana from France. Double the size of the country And waged a second and final war with England in 1812.


The country was driven by a belief of a pronounced fate. Has expanded beyond the Louisiana Purchase All the way to California and Oregon. The expansion was driven by the pursuit. Affordable land for freed farmers, and slave owners. This expansion was contentious and fueled the irretrievable differences between the North and the South in the institution of slavery in the new territory. Slavery was abolished in all states north of the Mason-Dixon line in 1804, but the South continued to profit from institutions, to produce high-value cotton exports to feed higher demand in Europe. The 1860 president of the Republican anti-slaveryist, Abraham Lincoln, ignites the seventh break. (Later eleven) slavery states that established the Confederation in 1861, the American Civil War (1861-1865), as a result, with overwhelming material and manpower advantages of the North as a decisive figure in the war that Long, while England and France remained neutral. The result was the restoration of the Union, the poverty of the South, and the abolition of slavery. In the Reconstruction era (1863-1877), legal rights and voting were extended to the freedmen. The National Government was strengthened, and because of the Fourteenth Amendment it was given a clear duty to protect individual rights. However, separate laws and Jim Crow's laws left blacks the least powerful second-class citizens in the South until 1967.


The United States became the world's leading industrial power at the turn of the 20th century due to an explosion of entrepreneurship in the North East and Midwest. And the arrival of millions of migrant workers and farmers from Europe. The country's rail network was accomplished by the work of Chinese immigrants, and large mining and factories built. Industrial jobs for the Northeast and Midwest. Mass dissatisfaction with traditional corruption and politics spurred a progressive movement, from the 1890s to the 1920s, which led to numerous reforms, including the 16th to 19th Amendments that resulted in federal income taxes. The Senate directly prohibits and the suffrage of women. Initially, neutrality during World War I The United States invaded the war with Germany in 1917 and won the following year. Women were given the right to vote in 1945. By 1920 Native Americans were granted citizenship and the right to vote 1924.


Initially neutral in World War I, the United States declared war on Germany in 1917 and financed the Allies until they won the following year. After a prosperous decade of 1920, Wall Street collapsed in 1929, marking the The start of the Great Depression that spanned the world for a decade, Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt ended the Republican White House dominance and ran his program. , New Agreements, to mitigate, restore and reform. Modern American liberals. These include Unemployment relief, farmers support, social security And the minimum wage After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the United States joined. World War II together with the Allies, especially United Kingdom And the Soviet Union. It pays allies for the war. And helped to win Nazi Germany in Europe and by dropping the newly invented atomic bomb, in Japan in the Far East.


The United States and the Soviet Union became rival powers after World War II. Around 1947 they began the Cold War, an indirect confrontation with one another, in the arms and space race, the US foreign policy during the Cold War was built around support of Western Europe and Japan. And the policy of "staying there" or stopping the spread of communism. The United States participated in the Korean and Vietnam wars for Stop the spread. In the 1960s, especially because Movement strength Of human rights, other waves of social reform were implemented during the administration of Kennedy and Johnson, the enforcement of the constitutional rights of voting and the freedom of movement of African Americans and other minorities, the Native American movement also increased. The Cold War ended when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, leaving the United States as the sole world power. As the 21st century began, the conflict between nations centered around the Middle East and spread to Asia and Africa. Following the Sept. 11 al-Qaeda attack on the United States in 2008, the United States had its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. This was followed by slower economic growth in the 2010s.


Official language english

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